Year of publication
- AI vs. AU in American English compared to German (2016)
- American English and German AI, AU observed in cognates such as Wein, wine, Haus, house are usually treated on a par, represented with the same initial vowel (cf. [ai], [au] for Am. Engl, and German ). Yet, acoustic measurements indicate differences as the relevant trajectories characteristically cross in Am. Engl, but not in German. These data may indicate consistency with the same initial target for these diphthongs in German, supporting the choice of the same Symbol /a/ in phonemic representation, as opposed to distinct targets (and distinct initial phonemes) in American English.
- Interarticulator cohesion within coronal consonant production (2006)
- If more than one articulator is involved in the execution of a phonetic task, then the individual articulators have to be temporally coordinated with each other in a lawful manner. The present study aims at analyzing tongue-jaw cohesion in the temporal domain for the German coronal consonants /s, b, t, d, n, l/, i.e., consonants produced with the same set of articulators—the tongue blade and the jaw—but differing in manner of articulation. The stability of obtained interaction patterns is evaluated by varying the degree of vocal effort: comfortable and loud. Tongue and jaw movements of five speakers of German were recorded by means of electromagnetic midsagittal articulography _EMMA_ during /aCa/ sequences. The results indicate that _1_ tongue-jaw coordination varies with manner of articulation, i.e., a later onset and offset of the jaw target for the stops compared to the fricatives, the nasal and the lateral; (2) the obtained patterns are stable across vocal effort conditions; (3) the sibilants are produced with smaller standard deviations for latencies and target positions; and (4) adjustments to the lower jaw positions during the surrounding vowels in loud speech occur during the closing and opening movement intervals and not the consonantal target phases.
- Jaw and Order (2007)
- It is well-accepted that the jaw plays an active role in influencing vowel height. The general aim of the current study is to further investigate the extent to which the jaw is active in producing consonantal distinctions, with specific focus on coronal consonants. Therefore, tongue tip and jaw positions are compared for the German coronal consonants Is, J, t, d, n, 1/, that is, consonants having the same active articulators (apical/laminal) but differing in manner of articulation. In order to test the stability of articulatory positions for each of these coronal consonants, a natural perturbation paradigm was introduced by recording two levels of vocal effort: comfortable, and loud without shouting. Tongue and jaw movements of five speakers of German were recorded by means of EMMA during /aCa/ sequences. By analyzing the tongue tip and jaw positions and their spatial variability we found that (1) the jaw's contribution to these consonants varies with manner of articulation, and (2) for all coronal consonants the positions are stable across loudness conditions except for those of the nasal. Results are discussed with respect to the tasks of the jaw, and the possible articulatory adjustments that may accompany louder speech.
- Invariance and variability in articulation and acoustics of natural perturbed speech (2001)
- The goal of this study was to evaluate invariance vs. variability in both articulation and acoustics of speech production units. To keep interaction of controlled variables manageable, only a very simple subrange of speech productions was studied. Three different vowel qualities and six different consonants were examined in a VCV sequence embedded in an utterance. Beside coarticulation vocal effort was a further factor of perturbation occuring in natural speech. The set of consonants comprised various modes of articulation (stop, fricative, nasal, lateral) all produced at virtually the same place of articulation, viz. (post-) alveolar. The range of vowel environments /i:/, /e:/, /a:/ was selected for differences in height, in order to vary coarticulatory effects between the segments. Utterances were produced at two different volume levels, viz. normal and loud speech. Experiments by others have demonstrated that higher speech volume is not simply realized as a raised sound pressure level or as raised intensity. For loud speech a number of different correlates were observed, as raised subglottal pressure (see Ladefoged/McKinney 1963), raised fundamental frequency, raised first formant, and change of segmental durations (e.g. Traunmüller/Eriksson 2000). Furthermore an effect on jaw height was observed in vowels, which is that in vowel production in loud speech the jaw has a lower position. In earlier studies results have been presented for either articulatory (Schulman 1989) or acoustic changes (Traunmüller/Eriksson 2000) associated with higher volume. The present study examines effects of higher volume level on vowels as well as on consonants, in the articulatory as well as the acoustic channel. Data from six German speakers (5 male, 1 female) were recorded and analyzed. In the 266 articulatory channel jaw and tongue-tip movements were analyzed, in the acoustic domain segmental characteristics as formants, duration, intensity and fundamental frequency. The main results can be described as follows: - Jaw height in vowels depends on vowel height, in the vowel production of loud speech the jaw is lowered significantly. - Jaw height in consonants depends on the type of consonant (very high for /s/, / /, /t/, fairly low for /n/, /l/). Speaking at higher volume level does not have a significant effect on jaw height during (post-) alveoloar consonant production, coarticulatory effect of vowel context is mainly found with /n/ and /l/. - In loud speech jaw gestures have higher amplitude. - Acoustic segmental duration is changed: Vowels are lengthened and consonants are shortened. - Fundamental frequency in vowel segments is raised significantly. - In all vowels the first formant is raised. - The second formant of the non-front vowel /a:/ is raised. This work has demonstrated that jaw articulation in a number of alveolar consonants is remarkably precise and that motor equivalence only plays a minor role. Moreover, it has been shown that in the face of the generally larger variability of acoustic and articulatory parameters, the results are best considered in terms of perceptual invariants. The findings also substantiate the complexity of articulatory and acoustic reorganisation in loud speech.
- Towards a new level of annotation detail of multilingual speech corpora (2004)
- The aim of this paper is to highlight the actual need for corpora that have been annotated based on acoustic information. The acoustic information should be coded in features or properties and is needed to inform further processing systems, i.e. to present a basis for a speech recognition system using linguistic information. Feature annotation of existing corpora in combination with segmental annotation can provide a powerful training material for speech recognition systems, but will as well challenge the further processing of features to segments and syllables. We present here the theoretical preliminaries for our multilingual feature extraction system, that we are currently working on.
- Formant Trajectory Dynamics in Swabian Diphthongs (1997)
- The vowel quality in some diphthongs of Swabian (an upper german dialect) was determined by measurement of first and second formant values. A minimal contrast could be shown between two different diphthong qualities […], where for Standard German only one is assumed, viz. /ai/. The two diphthong qualities differ only slightly in onset and offset vowel quality, so a better understanding of their relationship was expected from an examination of their dynamic aspects. Our preliminary results suggest that there is indeed a difference in the temporal structure of the two diphthongs.
- Are there compensatory effects in natural speech? (1999)
- This work exploited coarticulation and loud speech as natural sources of perturbation in order to determine whether articulatory covariation (motor equivalent behavior) can be observed inspeech that is not artificially perturbed. Articulatory analyses of jaw and tongue movement in the production of alveolar consonants by German speakers were performed. The sibilant /s/ shows virtually no articulatory covariation under the influence of natural perturbations, whereas other alveolar consonants show more obvious compensatory behavior. Our conclusion is that an effect of natural sources of perturbation is noticable, but sounds are affected to different degrees.
- Vocal intensity: acoustic and articulatory correlates (2001)
- Analyses of jaw movement(obtained by Electromagnetic Articulography) and acoustics show that loud speech is an intricate phenomenon. Besides involving higher intensity and subglottal pressure it affects jaw movements as well as fundamental frequency and especially first formants. It is argued that all these effects serve the purpose of enhancing perceptual salience.
- Some implications for gestural underspecification as a result of the analysis of German /t/ assimilation (1995)
- As can be shown for English data, the assimilation of the alveolar stop can result from an increased gestural overlap of the following oral closure gesture. Our experiment with German synthetic speech showed similar results. Further, it suggests that it is neccessary to complete the gestural specification of the glottal state. A voiced stop should be represented not only by an oral gesture, but by a glottal one as well.