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The etymology of internationalisms. Evidence from German and Slovak

  • In the etymological information for a word in a dictionary, the first question to be answered is whether the word is a borrowing or the result of word formation. Here, we consider this question for internationalisms ending in -ation in German and in -ácia in Slovak. In German, -ation is a suffix that attaches to verbs in -ieren. For these verbs, it is in competition with -ung. In Slovak, -ácia is a suffix that attaches to bases of Latin or Greek origin. The corresponding verbs are often backformations. Most Slovak verbs also have a nominalization in -nie. In order to investigate to what extent the nouns in -ation or -ácia are borrowings or derived from the corresponding verbs in German and Slovak, we took a random sample of English nouns in -ation for which OED gives a corresponding verb. For this sample, we checked whether the cognate noun in -ation or -ácia is attested in standard dictionaries and in corpora. Then we did the same for the corresponding verbs and the nouns in -ung or -nie. Finally, we checked the frequency of these words in DeReKo for German and SNK for Slovak. On this basis, we found evidence that -ation in German has a slightly different status to -ácia in Slovak. This status affects the relationship to the corresponding verbs and to the nouns in -ung or -nie. Such generalizations are important as background information for specifying etymological information in dictionaries, especially for languages where first attestations dates are not readily available.

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Author:Pius ten HackenGND, Renáta PanocováGND
Parent Title (English):Dictionaries and Society. Proceedings of the XX EURALEX International Congress, 12-16 July 2022, Mannheim, Germany
Place of publication:Mannheim
Editor:Annette Klosa-Kückelhaus, Christine Möhrs, Stefan Engelberg, Petra Storjohann
Document Type:Part of a Book
Year of first Publication:2022
Date of Publication (online):2022/11/14
Publishing Institution:Leibniz-Institut für Deutsche Sprache (IDS)
Tag:Borrowing; reanalysis; word formation
GND Keyword:Deutsch; Internationalismus; Lehnwort; Nomen; Slowakisch; Wortbildung
First Page:792
Last Page:802
DDC classes:400 Sprache / 420 Englisch
Open Access?:ja
Conferences, Workshops:Dictionaries and Society. Proceedings of the XX EURALEX International Congress, 12-16 July 2022, Mannheim, Germany
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - CC BY-SA - Namensnennung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 4.0 International